Test Case AC6-07

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Draft tube

Application Challenge 6-07               © copyright ERCOFTAC 2004


Test Data

Overview of Tests

The data bank consists of data for two main cases. The first case is on-cam i.e. the top-point (T) on the propeller curve (single runner blade angle curve). The second case is off-cam i.e. the right-leg (R) on the propeller curve. Both are conducted at 60 % load, which is close to the best efficiency for the system, and at the same test head (H = 4.5 m).

The measurements were carried out during a period of five years. The model broke during this period and it was not possible to exactly repeat the same conditions after the accident. Therefore the data has been divided into before (r) and after (n), e.g. T(r) in the text (or Tr in file names) refers to the early Case T measurements. A more thorough discussion, that describes the different operational modes, can be found in Andersson (2003a). The (r)-measurements were used as initial conditions for both Turbine 99-workshops, while (n)-measurements are more complete with data at outlet section II and III.

The exact settings of the runner speed, N, and the resulting flow, Q, (i.e. PDPs) and the corresponding unit speeds, N11 and Q11 (i.e. GNDPs), are shown in Table EXP-A. In Figure 2.1 one can see an overview of the relation between the operational modes.

Image596.jpg
Figure 2.1: Sketch of the propeller curve and location of the test cases.

The flow of the draft tube has been studied with visualisations to get an overview of the main flow regimes. LDV has been used at a number of cross sections for velocity measurements. Wall pressure measurements has been performed to evaluate the performance of the draft tube. Figure 1.3 and 1.4 gives a description of the geometric location of each type of measurement. The available data has been listed in Table EXP-B.

In Andersson and Karlsson (1999) and Andersson (2003 a,b) a presentation of the methods used and a thorough discussion of the quality of the experimental data can be found.


Table EXP-A Summary Description of All Test Cases
Name GNDPs PDPs MPs
N11

(√m/60s)

Q11

(√m/s)

ReH

(10-6)

Head

(m)

Flow rate

(m3/s)

Runner speed

(rpm)

Detailed Data DOAPs
EXP 1a

(T(r) - case)

140.4 1.00 4.1 4.5 0.528 595 Cp, U, v, k α, β, S
EXP 1b

(T(n) - case)

140.4 0.98 4.1 4.5 0.522 595 Cp, U, v, k Cpr wall Cpr average

ζ, α, β, S

EXP 2a

(R(r) - case)

140.4 1.03 4.1 4.5 0.548 595 Cp, U, v, k α, β, S
EXP 2b

(R(n) - case)

140.4 1.02 4.1 4.5 0.542 595 Cp, U, v, k Cpr wall Cpr average

ζ, α, β, S



Table EXP-B Summary Description of all Measured Parameters and Available Data Files
Section Ia

Profiles 1 2 3

Section Ib Section II Section III
U V uv Cp Cp dyn U V uv U V uv U V uv
EXP 1a Tick.gif TrIa1.dat Cross.gif Tick.gif TrIb.dat Cross.gif Cross.gif
Tick.gif TrIa2.dat
EXP 1b Tick.gif TnIa1.dat Tick.gif TnIa3.dat Tick.gif TnIb.dat Tick.gif TnII.dat Tick.gif TnIII.dat
EXP 2a Tick.gif RrIa1.dat Cross.gif Tick.gif RrIb.dat Cross.gif Cross.gif
Tick.gif RrIa2.dat
EXP 2b Tick.gif RnIa1.dat Tick.gif RnIa3.dat Tick.gif RnIb.dat Tick.gif RnII.dat Cross.gif
Section Ia W Section IVb W Upper Centre Line Lower Centre Line DOAPS, or other miscellaneous data
Cp Cp Cp Cp
EXP 1a Cross.gif Tick.gif TrIVb.dat Cross.gif Cross.gif Tick.gif TrDOAP.dat
EXP 1b Tick.gif TnIaW.dat Cross.gif Tick.gif TnUcl.dat Tick.gif TnLcl.dat Tick.gif TnDOAP.dat
EXP 2a Cross.gif Tick.gif RrIVb.dat Cross.gif Cross.gif Tick.gif RrDOAP.dat
EXP 2b Cross.gif Cross.gif Tick.gif RnUcl.dat Tick.gif RnLcl.dat Tick.gif RnDOAP.dat


Tick.gif available data

Cross.gif unavailable data

Test case DATA

Description of Experiment

Case T and R are a collection of all experimental data, collected at each operational mode. The setting of GNDPs and PDPs can be found in Table EXP-A for each case. In section 1.4 a description of the geometric location of each type of measurement is given.

This paragraph is followed by a brief description of the available boundary conditions, a presentation of typical measurement errors at each section. After that follows a listing of available data files, first for Case T and second for Case R.

Boundary Data

The velocity measurements at section Ia serve as inlet conditions for the draft tube. These include the axial and the tangential mean and RMS velocity components. However, the radial velocity component is missing. More details can be found Gebart, Gustavsson and Karlsson (2000).

The model walls are painted steel surfaces and the surface roughness is estimated to be in the order of 10 μm, therefore the walls can be considered to be hydraulically smooth with the typical velocities in the experiment. Between model parts there can be discontinuities and weld seams that can cause local losses.

In Andersson (2003c) additional information e.g. about periodic behaviour at the inlet can be found. Also see section 3.2.3. regarding assumptions and settings used and recommended for CFD calculations.

Measurement Errors

In Andersson and Karlsson (1999) a thorough discussion of the quality of the experimental data can be found. Typical results from the evaluation can be seen in Table 1 and 2 (for case T). There is no major difference between case T and R. These are averaged values. The individual error estimation for each raw data value can be found in the supplied raw data files.

Table 2.1: The relative errors (%) in axial / tangential (or horizontal) mean velocity.

C.s. Ia

C.s. Ib

C.s. III

Random error

± 2.0 % / ± 3.5 %

± 2.0 % / ± 3.5 %

± 3.0 % / ± 5.0 %

Velocity bias

(axial component)

< +0.9 %

< + 1.4 %

< + 3.6 %

Probe volume location

± 1 % / ± 1-2 %

± 0.5 % /

± 0.5-5%

± 0.25 % /

± 0.25 %

Leakage

- 2 %

-

-

Symmetry

± 1 % / ± 1.25 %

± 2 % / ± 2.5 %

-

Total error

axial

tangential

x1 < ε < x2
- 4.1 % +1.3 %
- 5.2 % + 3.1 %
x1 < ε < x2
- 2.0 % + 4.3 %
>-5.9 % <+7.9 %
x1 < ε < x2
- 1.5 % + 6.6 %
- 3.5 % + 8.6 %


Table 2.2: Test of internal consistency (Q_int is the flow rate integrated from velocity measurements)

C.s. Ia *

C.s. Ib

C.s. III

Umean [m/s]

3.54

2.44

1.01

Vmean [m/s]

0.82

0.69

0.08

Q_int/Q [ ]

0.97

1.03

1.00

* mean values for the two measured cross sections
 

Measured Data

The raw data files (*.dat, see below) are stored in ASCII-format. If nothing else is specified the format of the files used, is:

Header lines

position(x, y and z-coordinates) mean values rms values error margins

Velocity data is normalised with the mean value of the local average velocity (Q/Area of cross section) and pressure data is normalised with the dynamic pressure at the inlet and the pressure reference level is set to one at section IVb. The data has not been interpolated or otherwise manipulated if nothing else is stated.

In Andersson (1999, 2003a, 2003b) most of the data is presented and the main flow features discussed. (All contributions to Turbine 99-Workshop 2 are collected in the proceedings, Engström et al (2003)).

Exp 1a and 1b: Case T

Derived data:

DOAPs calculated at available cross sections for case T(r): TrDOAP.dat

DOAPs calculated at available cross sections for case T(n): TnDOAP.dat

Visualisations

A number of pictures that describes the flow for Case T. The visualisations have focused on the streamlines close to the wall.

The pictures are stored in jpeg-format.

A6-07d30 files image051.jpg
Figure 2.2: Streamlines close to the wall at the inlet cone.


A. Left view B. Top view
A6-07d30 files image053.jpg A6-07d30 files image055.jpg
C. Right view D. Downstream view (c.s. III)
A6-07d30 files image057.jpg A6-07d30 files image059.jpg
Figure 2.3: Streamlines close to the surface at the elbow and outlet diffuser.


Velocity and pressure measurements:

Section Ia

A6-07d30 files image061.jpg
Figure 2.4: The normalised mean velocity components at profile Ia(1).

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 1 (-10°), for Case T(r). (See Figure 1.5).

TrIa1.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 2 (180°), for Case T(r). (See Figure 1.5).

TrIa2.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section Ia, along profile 1 (-10°), for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.5).

TnIa1.dat

Normalised static and dynamic pressure measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 3 ( -80°), for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.5).

TnIa3.dat

Normalised wall pressure measurements at cross section Ia,
for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.5).

TnIaW.dat

Section Ib

Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section Ib, along profile 1 (-80°), for Case T(r). (See Figure 1.5).

TrIb.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section Ib, along profile 1 (-80°), for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.5).

TnIb.dat

Section II

A6-07d30 files image063.jpg
Figure 2.5: The axial (contours) and horizontal (vectors) velocity components at c.s. II (down stream view).

Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section II for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.4).

TnII.dat

Section III

Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section III, for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.4).

TnIII.dat

Section IVb

Normalised wall pressure measurements at cross section IVb, for Case T(r).
(See Figure 1.4).

TrIVb.dat

Centrelines

Normalised wall pressure measurements along the upper centre line,
for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.7).

TnUcl.dat

Normalised wall pressure measurements along the lower centre line,
for Case T(n). (See Figure 1.7).

TnLcl.dat

Exp 2a and 2b Case R

Derived data:

DOAPs calculated at available cross sections for case R(r).

RrDOAP.dat

DOAPs calculated at available cross sections for case R(n).

RnDOAP.dat

Visualisations:

A number of pictures that describe the flow for Case R. The visualisations have focused on the streamlines close to the wall.

The pictures are stored in jpeg-format.


A6-07d30 files image065.jpg
Figure 2.6: Streamlines close to the wall at the inlet cone.


A. Left view B. Top view
A6-07d30 files image067.jpg A6-07d30 files image069.jpg
C. Right view D. Downstream view (c.s. III)
A6-07d30 files image071.jpg A6-07d30 files image073.jpg
Figure 2.7: Surface streamlines at the elbow and the first part of outlet diffuser.

Velocity and pressure measurements:

Section Ia

A6-07d30 files image075.jpg
Figure 2.8: The normalised mean velocity components at profile Ia(1).


Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 1 (-10°), for Case R(r). (See Figure 1.5).

RrIa1.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 2 (180°), for Case R(r). (See Figure 1.5).

RrIa2.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 1 (-10°), for Case R(n). (See Figure 1.5).

RnIa1.dat

Normalised static pressure measurements at cross section Ia,
along profile 3 ( -80°), for Case R(n). (See Figure 1.5).

RnIa3.dat

Section Ib

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ib,
along profile 1 (-80°), for Case R(r). (See Figure 1.5).

RrIb.dat

Normalised axial and tangential velocity measurements at cross section Ib,
along profile 1 (-80°), for Case R(n). (See Figure 1.5).

RnIb.dat


Section II

A6-07d30 files image077.jpg
Figure 2.9: The axial (contours) and horizontal (vectors) velocity components at c.s. II.


Normalised axial and tangential velocity and pressure measurements
at cross section II for Case R(n). (See Figure 1.4).

RnII.dat

Section IVb

Normalised wall pressure measurements along at cross section IVb, for Case R(r).
(See Figure 1.4).

RrIVb.dat

Centrelines

Normalised wall pressure measurements along the upper centre line, for Case R(n).
(See Figure 1.7).

RnUcl.dat

Normalised wall pressure measurements along the lower centre line, for Case R(n).
(See Figure 1.7).

RnLcl.dat

References

Andersson U. and R. Karlsson (1999) Quality aspects of the Turbine 99 draft tube experiments In: Proceedings from Turbine 99 — workshop on draft tube flow, Technical report, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

Andersson U. (1999) Turbine 99 — Experiments On Draft Tube Flow (Test Case T) In: Proceedings from Turbine 99 — workshop on draft tube flow, Technical report, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

Andersson U. (2000) An experimental study of the flow in a Sharp-Heel Draft Tube, Licentiate Thesis 2000:08, Luleå Unversity of Technology, Sweden

Andersson U. (2003a) Turbine 99 — Experiments On Draft Tube Flow (Test Case R) In: Proceedings from Turbine 99 — workshop 2 on draft tube flow.

Andersson U. (2003b) Test Case T — some new results and updates since Workshop I. In: Proceedings from Turbine 99 — workshop 2 on draft tube flow.

Andersson U. (2003c) Time resolved velocities at the inlet of the draft tube. To be submitted.

Gebart B.R., Gustavsson L.H. and Karlsson R.I. (editors) (2000) Proceedings of Turbine-99 — Workshop on draft tube flow in Porjus, Sweden, 20-23 June 1999, Technical report , 2000:11 from Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden. ISSN:1402-1536.

Engström, T.F., Gustavsson, L.H., & Karlsson, R.I. (2003), Proceedings of Turbine-99 - Workshop 2. The second ERCOFTAC Workshop on Draft Tube Flow. Älvkarleby, Sweden, June 18-20 2001. http://epubl.luth.se/1402-1536/2000/11/index-en.html

In text called Proc.W2.

© copyright ERCOFTAC 2004



Contributors: Rolf Karlsson - Vattenfall Utveckling AB


Front Page

Description

Test Data

CFD Simulations

Evaluation

Best Practice Advice